Inner diameter 12-13 cm
Height 7 mm
Material – ST3 Steel
Thickness 2 mm
An umbon (Latin umbo “protrusion, bulge”) is a metal plaque – a hemispherical or conical overlay placed in the middle of the shield, protecting the warrior’s hand from blows piercing the shield. Under the umbon there is often a handle by which a warrior holds a shield. It also serves as a shield decoration. Often the umbon was given a pointed shape, which made it possible to strike with a shield.
Shields with umbon were widespread from the Bronze Age to the late Middle Ages, as a more expensive and reliable version of a simple wooden shield. The manner of holding the shield with a fist by the handle in the middle of the shield significantly influenced the tactics of the battle: both single fencing (not only actively reflecting weapons, but also attacking), and the construction of a foot formation in a line (as dense as possible with a solid wall of shields). As the cavalry became massive, the shield had a second sling, which the shield began to hang on the forearm.